The Conlang-List Ethnologue

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AFAR (AFAR, LIMBA AFRICAN) [AFR] {Leo Caesius} 12,500,000 - 13,000,000 in all countries. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Afer. Dialects: Tripolitanian, African, Mauritanian. No one form of Afer is selected as standard for literary purposes. An extinct form of the language, Old Afer, is used for literary and teaching purposes. There is a growing movement to recognize Afar as an important part of the African linguistic and cultural heritage. Typology: SVO. Roman Catholic, Donatist, Manichaean, Orthodox, Monophysite, Arian, Anglican, Muslim, and followers of traditional beliefs. Bible Portions 1858-1861. Survey needed.

AKTE (GIYAN ISLAND DUMAGAT, GIYAN ISLAND AGTA, GIYAN ISLAND NEGRITO) [AGX] {Kristian Jensen} 60 (1992 L. Reid). Giyan Island, Quezon Province, Luzon, Philippines. Language Isolate. Geographically isolated. Not Austronesian (Lawrence Reid). Negrito. Few speak Tagalog. Sedentary hunter-gatherer, animist, moieties. Typology: VSO, suffixing, polysynthetic, limited phonemic inventory with 8 consonants and 2 vowels. Work in progress. [NB.: Lawrence Reid is a well-known (real world) expert on Philippine Negritos, but his knowledge of Akte is of course fictional.]

ALE [ALE] {Daniel Seriff} 4,000,000 first-language speakers, approx. 7,000,000 second-language users. Usari, Northern, Mungayödic. The earliest attested of the modern descendants of Mungayöd. Used as a lingua franca on Iitee continent, even among speakers of other Mungayödic languages. Typology: VSO, mostly isolating, with some inflectional residue in articles and verbs. Written in a simplified version of the old Mungayöd script. Orthography is by-and-large etymological, although most of the inflectional morphology of the parent language has been greatly reduced in pronunciation.

AZARIAN (MEJINSYÈ) [AZR] {Pierre Abbat} 100,000,000. Borogoni, Bor, Northwest, Melonian. The only tonal Borogoni language. Originally a dialect of Melonian. The Azarians invaded eastern Gon and took over the area, which was then populated by various tribes, who still live in pockets of Azaria. Typology: SVO, inflecting. Phonology is notable in that the consonants n, l, and r are all missing (the letter n is used in transliteration to indicate a nasal vowel).

BOREANESIAN (STANDARD BOREANESIAN, LMAQ) [BOR] {Kristian Jensen} 5,000,000 (1994 estimate). Boreanesian Islands. National Language. Boreanesian, Meso, Central. Effectively a genetic isolate, all other known Boreanesian languages having been extinct for 40 years. All non-standard dialects are moribund. National language. Unusual syntactic typology, Greenberg's type 8: VOS, post-positional, genitive-noun, noun-adjective. Other typological characteristics include: complex non-concatenative morphology, phonemic phonation, morpheme-level nasalization. Native deistic animatistic religion with degenerated elements of Brahmanism. Dual-descent descent-system following the Iroquoian model incorporating both patri- and matrimoieties. Bible portions.

BRITHENIG (COMROIG) [BRT] {Andrew} 3,000,000-4,000,000 speakers in Kemr also overseas emmigrant communities. Kemr/Western Britain, Ireland, North American League, Canada, Argentina, Australasia. Indo-European, Romance, Insular, Celtic Substrate. Dialects: Castreleonig, Pagusian, Sorbadu, Northern, Yscaws. National Language. Other official languages Kerno, English, Manx Norse. Typography SVO. Christian. Bible 1588. Alternative Timeline, see: Ill Bethisad.

CARDBOARD ENGLISH [CEN] {Alfred Wallace} Spoken by 42 inhabitants of the Gamma-Delta-Iota fraternity, Sigma Chapter, at Eastern Kentucky State University in Richmond, KY, USA. Dialect of American English. Outwardly very similar to standard American English, however the surface similarities are quite deceptive. Dictionary. Language consists of single word, pronounced as SAE "peas," is spelled "cardboard" (using roman script), and means "Give me another beer." In some dialects the meaning is changed to extremely vulgar expletives. Inhabitants live in extreme squalor in a tiny, run-down building. Environment is minimal, as the lawn has died; however, inedible mold colonies abound in some regions. Diet consists primarily of beer and other alcohol- and malt-based products. No Bible.

CASTILIAN, HANKY (CRIOLLO) [HCA] {Carlos Thompson} 35,000 speakers in Kurimpe, 120,000 speakers in Daluram and Yelamha; 85% bilingual (Hangkerimian), intelligible with Castillian, Floridian and Diegian. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Ibero-Romance, North, Central. Recognized as separate language than Castillian since orthography revision 1794, official minority language since 1965. Typology SOV, inflecting, isolating. Latin script. Mostly Christians. Bible 1796-1987. NT 1795-1985. Bible portions 1794-1987.

CHEVRAQIS [CVR] {Yoon Ha Lee} Spoken principally in Qenar and Avrezin, with a significant proportion of speakers in the nearby countries El-Jheyun and Bereshen. One of several living descendants of Aragis, significantly influenced by Tiesh (spoken in the northern desert) and various tongues of the eastland horse nomads (not yet sketched) in Qenar, by Mijera (spoken by the Summersea islanders) in Avrezin. Inflecting with a triconsonantal system, defaults to SOV with fairly free word order, active case marking that often reflects (in Qenar) the remnants of an animistic view of the world. Some outdated cultural documentation is available in notes on the Black Wall, a mythical/alternate history of the area (; the language notes are even more out-of-date. In theory, very much alive. Work in progress.

CORONESE, ACADEMIC (CORONESE, CYB-CORONESE) [COR] {Mikael Johansson} Main language of communication within academic circles within Corona (Iota Piscium I). Developed from a highly cyborgian dialect of High Anglic sometime during the 8th and 9th millenia. Ultimately an ancestor from 20th century english, but with heavy sound changes and grammar changes to adopt it to the academic and cyborg-dense milieu of an university network close to the inner sphere. Word order SVO, extremely isolating and with a high degree of paired tag-markers inherent to the language. Employs quite advanced uses of metasyntactic variables, of logical groupings etc.

DAHARRAN [DAR] {Mikael Johansson} An alien language belonging to the ancient civilisation of the Daharrans; insectoid 2m tall centaurs. Their apparatus for vocal expression features three independent vocal cords; and the language is shaped after it. Agglutinated, probably SOV prevalent (not known yet, probably very free) and with the number 3 very prevalent throughout the language. 6 genders, 9 cases in three groups, 9 finite moods and 2 infinite (infinitive and participle), 3 times, active/medial/passive distinction, 3 aspects (singular, progressive, repeated), stasis distinction. The singular numerus covers both singular and dual.

DALMATIAN (DALMATIKA, LANGA DALMATESKA) [DAL] {Frank Valoczy} [Ill Bethisad] Indo-European, Romance, Eastern Romance, Dinaric. 10.000.000 speakers, about 8.000.000 in Dalmatia (national language), remainder in Croatia, Serbia, Hungary, Albania, Sandjak, Spain, France. Possibly also in Solemn League, Montrrei and Florida-Carribea. Typology: SVO. Latin alphabet; Glagolitic script for ecclesiastic purposes. Several more or less mutually intelligible dialects. African variety (Afrikanita, Langa Afrikaneska) is regarded as separate language (Dalmatian-based creole spoken in Mali, Gold Coast, Upper Volta, Niger and the Kamerun). Dialects need study. Religion: primarily Roman Catholic, some Eastern Orthodox, Muslim, Bogomil. Bible 1500-1600.

FILOFONECIAN (FILOFONIKISYE) [FLF] {Pierre Abbat} 20,000,000. Borogoni, Gon, Western. Typology: SVO, inflecting. National language of Filofonecia.

FONRATI [FNR] {Pierre Abbat} 3,000,000 in Fonra; 500,000 in Wania. Weniti, Eastern. Differs from Wanian mainly in phonetics. Fonra is in eastern Weni.

FUKHIAN [FKH] (FUCHISCH) {Henrik Theiling} No speakers. An art language for experimenting. No civilisation. Agglutinating. Suffixation only. Word order VSO preferred (but quite free due to clear suffixation). Underspecified wrt. tense. Five persons (two additional for indirect speech). 5 numeri: Nullar(?), singular, dual, trial, plural distinction. 10 cases (Nom, Pred, Gen, Acc, Dat, Instr, Loc, Ill, Abl, Voc). Nominative case marking. No concord. Every word can function as a verb (replacing a missing copula). Allows multiple references from relative clauses. Uses a script with many ligatures. The work needs major rework, is incomplete, but finished now.

GÉARTHNUNS [GTN] {Douglas Koller} 7,000,000 in Géarthtörs, 1 in USA. Other overseas figures unavailable, though concentrated in neighboring Russia, Korea, China, and Japan. Kingdom of Géarthtörs. Géarthfrens. Literacy rate 99% to 100%. Christian, philosophical Taoist, Zen Buddhist, secular, Jewish. Géarthnuns, Language Isolate. Dialects: Northeastern (Psersaus), Southwestern (Mvílsís), and Inner Mountain (Vdözçebsös). Dialects are mutually intelligible, though the variety spoken in the northeastern city of Gdhírs is considered the national standard. Géarthnuns alphabet used. National language. Typology: SOV, case system, no verb agreement. Bible portions.

HANGKERIMIAN (HANGKERIMCE) [HKC] {Carlos Thompson} 27,000,000 speakers in Kurimpe, 11,000,000 in Daluram, 28,000,000 in Yelamha, 6,000,000 outside Hangkerim countries; most speakers of other languages are bilingual in Hangkerimce. Andinean, Carib-Andinean, Hangkerimid. National language. 80% to 90% literate. Typology SOV, aglutinative, polisynthetic. Native syllabary script. Mainly Hangkerimic, about 300,000 Christians and 700,000 Hangke-Christians. Braile Bible. Bible 1615-1985. NT 1603-1985.

HANGKERIMIAN, CHRISTIAN (KIZADANOCE) [XHC] {Carlos Thompson} 50,000 speakers in Kurimpe, 40,000 in Yelamha; recognized as separate language from Hangkerimian in 1814, intelligible with Hangkerimian, most population bilingual (Hangkerimian). Andinean, Carib-Andinean, Hangkerimid. Recognized official minority language since 1965. 80% to 85% literate. Typology SOV, aglutinative, synthetic. Latin script. 98% Christians. Braile Bible. Bible 1587-1984. NT 1569-1989. Bible portions 1547-1989.

HANGKERIMIAN, EASTERN BLACK (HANKERIMCHE KUDAPU) [EBH] {Carlos Thompson} 34,000 speakers, all in Kurimpe, intelligible with Hangkerimian. Andinean, Carib-Andinean, Hangkerimid. Recognized official monority language since 1972. Typology SVO aglutinating. Hangkerim script and Latin script. Christian.

INI (INYANYI, PEILI) [INI] {Nicole Perrin} About 170,000 native speakers and about 5,000 additional speakers in the Republic of Tinta. Spoken by about 97% of the population of the Tinta Island as well as by about 1% of the populations of nearby islands. Official language of the Republic of Tinta, used by schools, government offices, and most businesses. Considerable dialectal variation; some colloquial varieties of Ini may barely be mutually intelligible. Dialects: Naia, Western Ini, Nan'anan'an, Nan'ani-Anam. Very limited number of phonemes. VSO.

IPSIGANG (Name as of 7:02 PST, 9/9/2001, spoken by a male age 24 who is unemployed and telling the truth) [ISG] {Alfred Wallace} Spoken by 363 members of the Society for the Abolishment of Liberal Education, headquartered in La Jolla, CA, USA. Language isolate. Typology: Highly variable. Inhabitants are a secular group opposed to imprecision in language, such as they encountered in the English Literature classes they were forced to take as undergraduates (most have since dropped out). Vocabulary, syntax, morphology and every other conceivable aspect of the language changes nearly constantly, depending on the date and time, gender of the user, age of the user, whether the user is lying or telling the truth, and much, much else. Often the complex rules result in vast confections of ideas and words being condensed to a single syllable. Thus, reading or hearing language spoken in Gonkelmidbarp (its name as of 7:08 PM, other circumstances as above) conveys far, far more information than do most languages. This is counterbalanced by a certain difficulty in decoding the language, especially for outsiders. No member of the SIL has managed to smuggle out a copy of the ten DVD-ROMs which contain the grammatical and syntactic rules of the language. No Bible.

KASH [KSH], properly KASH HOLUNDAKALE, "Holundan Kash", after its location and principal dialect. {Roger Mills} Language of an alien species, planet Cindu, location uncertain. Approx. 70,000,000 speakers: 45M in five states on the island-continent Yanatros, most of remainder on continent Hanjomim, minor settlements on continent Nocaniki and various islands. KASHIC family - at least 30 other distinct languages, subgrouping unknown at present. One of the principal languages of world trade on its planet; 2nd language of many, including Gwr people (distinct species). Typology SVO, inflecting. Alphabetic writing system, near 100% literacy. Religion: unclear, perhaps nature-worship, involves telepathic communication with unevolved wild relative species. There is one native speaker on Terra, H.E. the Emissary of the Galactic Unity; one human speaker of limited ability.

KERNO (BRETANECCA) [KRN] {Padraic Brown} 1.500.000 - 2.000.000 speakers in Kemr (~98% in Province of Dunein); 2.500.000 - 3.000.000 speakers in the Little Briton region of France; fewer than 2.000.000 speakers overseas. Kemr/Southwestern Britain, North American League, Canada, Australasia. Indo-European, Romance, Insular, Western British, large Celtic Substrate. Many regional and local dialects: most prominent are Kerno, Dunno and Breotu (high mutual comprehension); less prominent dialects require study. Typography SOV. Christian, vestigal Roman Paganism. Bible, 1923. Alternative Timeline, see: Ill Bethisad.

LYANJEN [LYJ] {Matt McLauchlin} 25 400 000 first language speakers, practically all of whom reside in Shrislyaria. 100 000 second-language speakers. Dialects: Spaard (acrolect), Itcésuas, Jeks, Nopastres, Tasoranjen (featuring borrowings from Tasoronyas). National language. Closest living relatives: (those languages from the Shrislia's home continent that are descended from Old Lyanjen, that I haven't named yet.) Agglutinating/fusional. SVO basic.

LINGUA FRACTA [LFR] {czHANg} Constructed Pidgin Language, mainly associated with Neo-Futurist "XenoCultura" and its "CaosDao" sound-art & anti-Art. High lexical similarity with Latinate English, Italian and Spanish with some borrowings from various natural and constructed languages, pidgins/creoles, slangs, and onomatopoeia. Typology: SVO. Early 2000's: attractive, subversive nterlingual/Internet "alternative" to English, Spanish and other languages.

LINGUA FRANCA (SABIR) [LFC] {Leo Caesius} Pidgin, Romance based. No native speakers. No native literature. Survey needed.

LIVAGIAN (LUELANQ) [LIV] {And Rosta} C. 1,000,000- speakers in Livagia plus a few elsewhere around the globe, all of whom speak it as a second language, some only passively. A classical language, a sanskrit, it is the official language of Livagia used in all official, legal, political and higher academic contexts and in all but the most ephemeral writing. The language shows internal evidence of being at least in part a 'philosophical language' shaped by conscious human agency. A Livagic language; on comparative evidence it seems close to Proto-Livagic. Whole Bible by c. 1850.

LÏZXFÖÖSE (LIZHFOIJ, LÏÏZHUFEE) [GLZ] {Daniel Seriff} Approx. 30,000,000 speakers, including colonial and diplomatic populations. Lizhfoid, High. Consonantal root system, with roots of one, two, and three consonants, and functional compounds of four roots. Typology: SOV, circumfixional verb conjugation. Vast dialectial variations, the more extreme of which are partially unintelligible. Major dialects: Sas, ta-Alzhif, Qemas. Monotheistic and monarchial.

MONTREIANO [MRO] {Barry Garcia} Approx. 7,450,000 first language speakers in the nation of Montrei on the western coast of North America. Additional 1,500,000 second or third language learners. Less than 1,000,000 speakers in other countries (primarily Mexico, United States, Canada, France, Spain) Many bi-lingual in Spanish, English, Italian, French. Official language of the Nation of Montrei (Naçoñ De Montrei). Other official language is Spanish. Taught in schools, language of business, and government. Minor dialectal difference throughout the nation. Standard Montreiano taught in schools, based upon the dialect of the capital city, Montrei (after which the nation was named). Typology SVO. Christian.

MOSKIAN (MOSCHA) [MSK] {Carlos Thompson} 74,000 speakers in Kurimpe, 23,000 in Yelamha; 80% bilingual (Hangkerimian). Chebinian, Southern Chebinian. Recognized minority language. 75% to 80% literate. Typology SVO, inflecting. Modified Hangkerim script and Latin script used. Hangkerimid and a few Christian. Bible portions 1614-1999, work in progress.

MUNGAYÖD (MUNÊGAJËD) [MGD] {Daniel Seriff} No living speakers. Usari, Northern, Mungayödic. Typology: VSO, inflecting, article-marked case. Phrase-head initial. Attested in hundreds of thousands of inscriptions and written documents. Progenitor of the Mungayödic language family. Native pseudo-alphabetic script. Cursive hand-script is written vertically with complex diacritic vowel-marking, block monumental script is written horizontally in an alphabetic manner. Society was primarily polytheistic. Extinct. Work in progress.